Posted By: Dr. Gary Bellman on March 25, 2016
may be present at birth (congenita
l) or may develop later (acquired
is classified by the location of its cause along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis:
Primary, disruption in the testicles
Secondary, disruption in the pituitary
Tertiary, disruption in the hypothalamus
The most common congenital cause is Klinefelter's syndrome
. This condition, which is caused by an extra X chromosome, results in infertility, sparse facial and body hair, abnormal breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and small testes.
Congenital hormonal disorders such as leutenizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) deficiency and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (e.g., Kallmann's syndrome) also may cause testosterone deficiency.
Other congenital causes include absence of the testes (anorchism; also may be acquired) and failure of the testicles to descend into the scrotum (cryptorchidism).
Acquired causes of testosterone deficiency
include the following:
Damage occurring during surgery involving the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, or testes
Head trauma that affects the hypothalamus
Infection (e.g., meningitis, syphilis, mumps)
Isolated LH deficiency (e.g., fertile eunuch syndrome)
Tumors of the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, or testicles
Studies have also shown that men with obesity, diabetes, or hypertension may be twice as likely to have low testosterone levels.
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